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wall in south-west corner of exedra. There are references to such myths in the Bacchae of Euripides. This choral song, expressing the beauty and the pleasure of Dionysiac liberation, is marked by a most striking refrain: Whatever is beautiful [kalon] is near and dear [philon] forever. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions So, there may be hope for Pentheus as well: every time a chorus sings and dances the refrain ‘whatever is beautiful is near and dear’, the body of the primordial king may once again get to be reassembled as the body politic. Now the new object of desire is the blood of a sacrificial goat that is slaughtered. VI.15.1 Pompeii. As we will see, this dismemberment of Pentheus is the hero’s agōn. north wall in north-east corner of exedra. Undated photograph by G. Sommer, numbered 11946, c.1895. The hero, seeing double, cannot understand that the god is one with those who participate in the god’s rituals, and so Pentheus mistakenly views Dionysus merely as a male worshipper of Dionysus, not as Dionysus himself. Just as death in war leads to kleos, as we saw in the case of Achilles already at the very beginning of this book, so also death by dismemberment leads to the kleos of Pentheus as the victim of his own antagonism with a god. The full wording of the text here points to the goat, since the male leader of the chorus was ‘hunting | the blood of the goat killed, tracking the beauty and the pleasure [kharis] of raw flesh devoured’ (138-139). For example, ‘he’ may be the king of Thebes and ‘she’ may be his mother, while ‘it’ may be the sun that shines and ‘they’ may be the mother and the aunts of the king. December 2006. At a later point, we will consider the women of Thebes as described in a messenger’s speech at lines 693-713, which I will be quoting. Resisting the attempts of some editors to emend the wording at line 860, I retain the reading found in the manuscript tradition of the, 35. on east wall in south-east corner of exedra. In our dialogue, we may also use nouns for identifying the various persons that mark what we are speaking about. As I have already noted, Dionysus is the god of theater. So, Dionysus is saying a fundamental truth when he tells Pentheus at lines 939-940 of the Bacchae, as quoted in Text A: ‘I really do think you will consider me the foremost among those who are near and dear [philoi] to you | when, contrary to your expectations, you see that Bacchants [bakkhai] are moderate [= sōphrones]’. The delusion of the herdsmen, who were induced by Dionysus to attack the Theban Bacchants, sets the stage for the delusion of Pentheus himself. Dionysus is a double signifier. For the god Dionysus, the idea of fear as conveyed by the word deinos needs to be seen in terms of the basic meaning of this word. death of Pentheus, from east wall of exedra. And in Greek, the noun prosōpon (πρόσωπον) likewise means ‘theatrical mask’. The formulation that I developed in the case of the hero Hippolytus applies here again in the case of the hero Pentheus and the Bacchants of Thebes: equilibrium in ritual is matched by disequilibrium in myth, and this disequilibrium leads to catastrophe. VI.15.1 Pompeii. But that does not mean that they are “out of control” – to use a modern expression. – In the usage of everyday people, subjectivity is simply the opposite of objectivity. This meaning, ‘competition’, is still evident in the English borrowing of a compound formation involving the word, The activity of ‘competition’ as expressed by the Greek word, their re-enacting, in words they have in common, the experiences they also have in common, which are the terrifying things that the Bacchants do (. on east wall in north-east corner of exedra. VI.15.1 Pompeii. There it is! 480 BC Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas AP 2002.02 This red-figure cup depicts the punishment the Theban king Pentheus received for doubting Dionysus' divinity and for forbidding the worship of the god. [4]. south wall in south-west corner in exedra. And, in the case of drân, it can mean ‘performing ritual’ as well as simply ‘doing’; further, the participial form drōmena of drân refers to ritual acts that are ‘done’ in mysteries connected with the cults of heroes.

All emotions can be enacted through the mīmēsis or ‘re-enactment’ achieved by way of theater. |927 {Dionysus:} Looking at you I think I see them right now. I focus here on a choral song that links such myths with Dionysiac ritual themes of dismemberment and eating raw flesh: [19]. Architectural wall painting Yes, I’m talking to you, to the one who is so eager to see the things that should not be seen |913 and who rushes to accomplish things that cannot be rushed. In my translation of lines 144-145 of the. As I pointed out already, the word for such a male worshipper is bakkhos. portico. From this mistaken point of view, Pentheus sees the male worshipper negatively. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies He hesitates whether to wield this ritual object with his right or his left hand – as he tries to coordinate his gestures with the movement of his feet in choral dance (941-944).

The thought comes alive when the male leader drops to the ground (137-138). In other words, Dionysus can act Dionysus. Again he shows a mistaken point of view, since he cannot understand that the Bacchants of Thebes are staged by the god Dionysus himself.

King Pentheus 1 comes in person to stop Dionysus 2, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported, Restoring Ancient Sculpture in Baroque Rome, A History of Baroque Roman Art and Architecture, Musical Imagery in the Global Middle Ages, Redeeming Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Case Status: Case pending. And so this noun pathos is the antithesis of the noun drāma, derived from drân.

wall painting of Hercules strangling the serpents.

So, the possession of a woman’s mind by Dionysus is a positive experience when the woman possessed is performing a ritual.

Painting of head on east wall in north-east corner of exedra. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer. The first film to be completed, The Butcher’s Shop, won the “Premio Open” at the 2008 festival, an award for films that bridge cinema and art. As someone whose mind is possessed negatively by the god in myth, Pentheus will behave catastrophically, while someone whose mind is possessed positively by the god in the ritual of drama will behave moderately, with decorum. |964 And so the ordeals [agōnes] that must happen are awaiting you. [17] Both these specific ideas are correlated with the general idea of disintegration followed by reintegration, in the sense that the body of an animal victim is dismembered and then eaten by the body politic: this way, the body politic can be reintegrated as a community through the communion of dividing and consuming the body of the victim. December 2006. 347). South-west corner of exedra and east 450-425 BCE / Photo by Jastrow, Louvre Museum, Paris, By Dr. Gregory Nagy They consist of a handful of passages from literature and about ten red-figure vase paintings ranging in date from the late sixth century to the late The diplopia experienced by the hero indicates that he has not been initiated into the mysteries of the rituals that celebrate the god Dionysus. VI. I say this because, the generic king can be pictured as the body politic (6§13 and §47; 9§6; 10§13; 19§20). The herdsman who is telling his eyewitness story to Pentheus the king is trying here to attenuate what he reports about the Theban Bacchants, since his own experience with them has already made him fear the god Dionysus even more than he fears the king, but the story nevertheless develops its own momentum, contradicting the herdsman’s claims about the ‘moderation’ and the ‘proper arrangement’ of the prototypical choruses of Theban women.

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