how many eyes do octopus have
BBC Earth 15,528,563 views. To illustrate, the vertebrate eye is normally insensitive to polarization differences because visual pigment in rods and cones is arrayed semi-randomly, and is thereby equally sensitive to any orientation of the e-vector axis of the light.
The popular, but INCORRECT, answer is “9” (a primary brain + one for each of its tentacles). In order to figure out if the opsins in cephalopod skin are actually able to sense light, a research team at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole first had to determine if these other necessary pieces were also present in the skin. Contention exists on whether this is truly convergent evolution or parallel evolution. They are able to taste with their suckers as well. Even when they are very hungry they would often prefer not to eat then to eat something that they won’t like the taste of.
They don’t have trouble in the dark waters that are found deep at the oceans floor. At times though they have to give up one in order to break free from a predator. This all part of what helps them to survive in their environment. The current standing is that of a convergent evolution for their analogous camera-type eye. Journal of Experimental Biology. That might seem pretty quick to us, but cephalopods are known to change their body color in a matter of milliseconds. A science blogging club for Stanford students.  The precise function of this ability has not been proven, but is hypothesized to be for prey detection, navigation, and possibly communication among the color-changing cephalopods..
The neurons that are in the arms link up to a denser cluster of neurons that is located at the base of each arm. Octopuses possess an autonomic response that maintains the orientation of their pupils such that they are always horizontal.
 For the past 140 years, the camera-type cephalopod eye has been compared with the vertebrate eye as an example of convergent evolution, where both types of organisms have independently evolved the camera-eye trait and both share similar functionality. Marine and Freshwater Behavior and Physiology. Researchers at UC Santa Barbara found that not only do pieces of octopus skin change color when any color of light is shone on them, but they also react most quickly to blue light. This means that cephalopods might use information from both their eyes and their skin to determine their body color patterns. all caphalopoda including Octopus have two large eyes. Budelmann BU. Cousins to the cephalopods, such as clams, mussels, and snails, have also been shown to sense light with their skin.
For one thing, it’s very unlikely that cephalopods are relying only on the light information their skin gets; they are probably still using their eyes to inform most of their color displays. It is hard to test out that theory though due to finding ways of measuring the lighting that they can see from the inside outward.
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