the abduction of europa ovid
Tiepolo’s The Rape of Europa (c 1725), a century after Rembrandt’s, not only dilutes its story in excessive ornamental figures, but shows an earlier moment, before Europa has started to make her acquaintance with the white bull. Serious drama cedes to a lighthearted atmosphere, colored by the frivolous, even amoral, excesses of the court at the end of the Ancien Régime. The literary comments of van Mander are essential to deconstructing the allegorical subject of Europa.  Naturalism plays a strong part in other aspects of the piece. Rembrandt places his figures in contemporary Dutch dress, making the story more relatable to his viewer. When Europa and her friends notice the bull retreating further into the sea without coming back, the bull transforms into Zeus and carries her to Mount Olympus on the island of Crete. between his shoulders; and his polished horns, His ribs and chest muscles arch in dramatic tension, though the rosy flesh tones of his body are as voluptuous as the female nudes nearby. for he assumed the semblance of a bull  Though Rembrandt never traveled to Italy, Venetian paintings that traveling to Amsterdam increased as it grew as an art center.
 Rembrandt is often called the "Titian of the north", and many of his portrait pieces show the influence of the Titian style and technique. Doing so requires two actors: Europa, a fair maiden, and a white bull, which the viewer must recognise as Jupiter in disguise. Jacques Specx, of the Dutch East India Company, commissioned Rembrandt to complete The Abduction of Europa.  Karel van Mander looked for an applicable meaning to the work that constructed a moral concept to the classical literature. Europa mounts the bull, which quickly whisks her away into the ocean.
Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), The Rape of Europa (copy of Titian's original) (1628-29), 182.5 × 201.5 cm, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Rembrandt’s The Abduction of Europa (1632) is almost contemporary with Rubens’ copy, and not one of his better-known works. Europa is not sat astride the bull, but reclines in a manner which anticipates her fate on Crete. Westermann, Mariët. unwitting what she did, at length sat down
Rembrandt also uses light to further dramatize the piece, as seen by the glittering of gold on the dresses and carriages. Rembrandt contrasts the dark trees against the light blues and pinks skies. The abduction from Zeus. Translated by Daryl Hine. He painted varied subjects, including many self-portraits. The Abduction of Europa. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. There are dozens of other fine paintings of this myth which fall more significantly short of telling its story. Surprisingly few painters felt it necessary to include an eagle in their paintings of Europa. Over sixty years later, in 1628-29, Rubens made a copy which is rightly as famous as the two Titians, in his The Rape of Europa, which is now in rather better condition than Titian’s originals, and one of the treasures of the Prado in Madrid. It conforms to the version in Metamorphoses, but loses dramatic effect by placing the bolting bull in a much larger (and very Dutch) landscape, dominated by Europa’s carriage, large trees, and a distant port. Cornhill Publishing Co. 1922, at Perseus. There is also nothing to tell the viewer that this bull is actually the king of the gods. In the story, Zeus whisks Europa away to Crete. This is the famous rape of Europa, although here Ovid only tells us of her abduction, another of Jupiter’s adulterous acts.
and mingled with the bullocks in the groves,
and not a moment resting bore her thence,
The myth of Europa was retold and rewritten many times throughout antiquity. The work embodies the international High Baroque with dramatic lighting coming from the left and the high drama in the moment of abduction. The High Baroque was also present in the Ruben’s work that Rembrandt studied.
His forehead was not lowered for attack, Adding Timing Features to an App: Tinderbox and Storyspace, Updates: Sierra, High Sierra, Mojave, Catalina, Big Sur, SilentKnight, silnite, LockRattler, SystHist & Scrub, xattred, Metamer, Sandstrip & xattr tools, T2M2, Ulbow, Consolation and log utilities, Taccy, Signet, Precize, Alifix, UTIutility, alisma, Text Utilities: Nalaprop, Dystextia and others. I am very grateful to Perseus at Tufts for this. All contents © 2017 Dallas Museum of Art. Rosenberg, Jakob. Metamorphoses. With this dramatic interpretation of Jupiter’s seduction of Europa, princess of Tyre, Rembrandt confidently asserted his status as a worthy member of an elite circle of history painters. This page was last modified on 17 February 2016, at 17:48. Titian keeps the figures in ancient dress, himations and chitons, keeping strong the mythological nature of the work. Rembrandt makes these changes not only to set himself apart from Titian, but also to gear the work specifically in mind to the commissioner of the work. 95.PB.7.
Once she sits upon him, Jupiter edges to the nearby shore, then suddenly whisks her off across the Mediterranean: Jean Baptiste Marie Pierre, The Abduction of Europa, Jean Baptiste Marie Pierre ( French, 1714 - 1789 ). The Italian artist, Titian, created a similar work nearly seventy years before. These show an unmistakeable Europa on the back of a white bull, which is just starting to bolt out to sea.
her waving garments fluttered as they went. For without a white bull and a visual clue that this is not just a bull, they could just be depicting a beautiful bird on the back of a bolting bull, couldn’t they? Many art historians agree that Titian was a huge influence on Rembrandt, including Westermann who connects the two artists in their comparison works of Danaë.  The idyllic shore and the detailed reflections in the water show the growing interest in naturalism in art. nor was there fury in his open eyes; and then the loving god in his great joy Europa is a princess of Tyre, who is playing with her court on the coast when a beautiful bull appears. Many of those are superb paintings, but only a few have made serious attempts to tell this story faithfully to the myth. Ovid’s account of the abduction of Europa is found in Book II 833-75 of Metamorphoses. New York: Viking, 1985. The Roman poet Ovid (43 BC-BCE 17) tells how Jupiter took the guise of the bull in order to abduct Europa, the beautiful daughter of the king of Tyre.
He was also named Director of the French Academy of Painting, hence occupying the pinnacle of power in the French art world during the last decades of the monarchy. Rembrandt’s The Abduction of Europa displays much about the artistic influences of his time. The painting shows a coastal scene with Europa being carried away in rough waters by a bull while her friends remain on shore with expressions of horror. yellow and golden.  Rembrandt’s familiarity with the literary and classical nature of the story is evident by the bull as both god and ship, and the harbor installation in the background. Europa’s Abduction Myth: Black-Figure Trefoil Oinochoe (Wine Jug), Europa on Bull, c. 530 BCE, The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
 The inspiration for the painting is Ovid’s Metamorphoses, part of which tells the tale of Zeus’s seduction and capture of Europa.
Rembrandt. Thank you – I agree. The snag with the Titians and Rubens’ copy is that they assume the viewer will recognise the scene, and know that the white bull is actually Jupiter. Nowhere together.
I have now got to the start of Book 3, with just another twelve to go after that… Mythology in Art: The Abduction of Europa .  Specx had established a trading center in Japan in 1609, served as the Governor of Batavia (former name of Jakarta, the Indonesian capital), and later returned to Holland in 1633.
Howard. The relationship also alludes to Europa’s impending new destination, where she will give Europe her name.
Pierre's painting is a typical rococo confection, emphasizing delicate colors, harmonious composition, and elegant postures. The subject and its allegorical meaning can be attributed to the patron, the artist, and a Belgian art biographer, Karel van Mander, whose theories entertained Rembdrant. A few years later, Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre painted his The Rape of Europa (1750), which at least advances the story to the point where the bull is accelerating away from the shore. Rembrandt’s work is set in a realistic setting, removing the cherubs from the work, instead placing the story in a highly familiar nature setting for his Dutch audience, Specx. Rembrandt surely would have read this book, both because of its importance and its location, and familiarized himself with van Mander’s theories and interpretations of Ovid’s myths. in shallow water by the sandy merge; the god moved from the land and from the shore,
Under the glowering eyes of the eagle, the floral romp of accessory figures is being dispersed in disarray. Artistic interests like genre, landscape, and myth painting, all combine in this one work. The Abduction of Europa, Rembrandt Rembrandt's own, present in his sharp, early Baroque style and in his later pictorial symphonies of texture, gesture, and quiet drama. then, near him, fragrant flowers in her hand In van Mander’s interpretation, she is moved by ship to Crete. Rembrandt Life and Work. Rembrandt combined his knowledge of classical literature with the interests of the patron in order to create this allegorical work. Even in this succinct summary of the abduction phase, there are some key facts: Jupiter masquerades as a white bull, and lures Europa to sit on his back.  Van Mander’s book Het schilder-boeck released a second edition in 1618. While the influences of Titian’s Europa (1560–62) are recognizable, Rembrandt’s work is unique.  Europa is a princess of Tyre, who is playing with her court on the coast when a beautiful bull appears.
 Rembrandt’s painting is set just as Europa is whisked away, as seen by the bull and young lady in the ocean in the painting. Jove then began to frisk upon the grass, she offered,—tempting, to his gentle mouth: the love of peace was in his countenance.
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